sábado, 15 de febrero de 2020

SOLUCIONES QUIMICAS Y FORMULACIONES

Cuando necesite informacion sobre productos quimicos o formulaciones,
escriba a mi correo emalaguti@gmail.com y le respondere con gusto. De la misma manera
podremos ayudarle con cualquier pregunta o duda sobre productos quimicos y procesos en general.

miércoles, 13 de diciembre de 2017

WAX EMULSIONS: A SURFACE LOOK

What are Wax Emulsions?


Wax Emulsions for CoatingsWax emulsions and dispersions are formulated additives made of fine and stabilized wax particles, homogeneously distributed in water. Being in the liquid form, they are easily incorporated into coatings and inks formulations by simple mixing.

  • Wax emulsions normally have particle size < 1µm, and therefore, a minimized effect on the coating gloss
  • Wax dispersions (either water or solvent-based), have a particle size typically > 1-2µm

Their very fine particle size ensures thorough, homogeneous incorporation with other ingredients of the formulation, maximizing the required effects.

Wax emulsions can be stabilized by either non-ionic emulsifiers (steric mechanism) or by ionic emulsifiers, most often anionic (electrostatic mechanism). Combining anionic and non-ionic emulsifiers provides the emulsion the optimum stability because wax particles are protected through both stabilization mechanisms.

In addition, each stabilization mechanism not only has its own advantages and limitations but also significantly impacts the overall formulation giving added flexibility in formulating.

Continue reading or click to go on specific section of the page:



Factors to be Considered While Formulating Wax Emulsions


Wax emulsions are now well established and extensively used in various aqueous formulations. These ready-to-use wax emulsions can be easily incorporated into a formula by simple mixing.

The wax properties that have the greatest impact on formulation performances include:

  1. The Melting Point: When curing is required, it is important that the wax has a lower melting point than the curing temperature. Thus, the wax can:

    Considering Melting Point in Wax Emulsion Formulation

  2. The Coating Thickness Layer: In order to maximize the wax effects, it is important to have the highest dried wax density to be at dried film surface.

    Hence, the wax emulsion should have a particle size as closest as possible to the thickness of the coating layer

    Sometimes a wax emulsion with a smaller particle size performs equally well, provided that the concentration is correctly adapted.

  3. pH of the Wax Emulsion should be within approximately one unit of the system to which it is added. If necessary, the pH of the emulsion can usually be adjusted using aqueous ammonia or acetic acid.

    pH of the Wax Emulsion

  4. The Type of surfactant can also influence compatibility with the other components, as well as the overall formulation stability. Matching the emulsion charge with the coating charge enhances stability.

  5. The Order of Component Addition: In water-based formulations, the order of component addition can be a critical factor in maintaining stability. Agglomeration can be prevented and overall stability maximized by adding the wax emulsion last. A further dilution of the emulsion with soft or demineralized water before incorporation can also reduce the shock.

  6. The Regulatory Aspects of Waxes: If the emulsion is intended for food contact use (in a coating or in a package), both the wax and other incorporated additives (emulsifiers, antifoams, biocides etc.) must be in compliance with applicable statutes and regulations (FDA, BfR, European Directives, Kosher Certification etc.).

  7. Determination of Wax content in a Formulation


Mechanism of Action of Wax Emulsions


The Blooming Mechanism


Molten wax particles float (or bloom) to the surface. The coating cools and re-crystallization of wax particles takes place, forming a thin but continuous wax-enriched surface layer.

Blooming Mechanism for Formulating Wax Emulsions
  • The softer the wax or lower the melting point, the more predominant the blooming mechanism becomes
  • The compatibility between the wax emulsion and other formulation components determines the wax migration rate

The Ball Bearing Mechanism


In this case, solid wax particles migrate individually or protrude through to the surface.

By protruding slightly above the coating surface like ping-pong balls floating on a pool of water, they:

  • Act as a physical spacer, and
  • Prevent another surface from coming into close contact

Hard and high melting point waxes (HDPE, PTFE) operate using this mechanism under certain conditions. Both the particle density and the extent of protrusion influence the magnitude of the effect.

Ball Bearing Mechanism for Formulating Wax Emulsions

Once at the surface, the layer of wax particles has the ability to modify the Coefficient of Friction (CoF) of the substrate, imparting the desired characteristics. This explains why waxes are often classified as "Surface Conditioner Additives".


Benefits of Wax Emulsions


Waxes are typical additives that significantly influence the surface properties of any coatings by modifying the surface free energy. This has an impact on properties such as:


All of them are critical properties in the paint, coating and ink applications. Hence, waxes are often classified as Surface Conditioner or Modifier Additives.

Wax Emulsions as Anti-block Agents


Anti-blocking is a term defining a non-stick condition between two surfaces or the resistance to adhesion between two surfaces under the influence of:

  • Temperature
  • Relative humidity, or
  • Pressure

A very well-known example of a blocking condition is when a freshly painted window frame is closed too soon. Sometimes, it can be very difficult to open the window again. Factors affecting blocking include:

  • Coating surface-free energy
  • Topography of the coatings
  • Hardness, and
  • Tg of the polymer

Wax emulsions as anti-blocking agents are also used extensively for items that are coated, dried and immediately stacked, rolled up for storage or shipment.

Effect of Wax on Slip & Mobility


Slip properties (or lubricity) represent the ability of two surfaces to glide over each other without causing any mechanical damage. Good slip properties require that the slip additive concentrate to the surface during and immediately after application and curing.

Generally speaking, the harder the wax, the better the slip properties


This is explained by the fact that wax crystals in the solid state are the main factor responsible for the characteristic of slip.

Soft & Hard Waxes
Thanks to this property, wax is widely used in applications:

  • Inks, OPV's & Primers,
  • Paper, Film, & Foil Coatings
  • Metal coatings

Slip resistance is the ability to manipulate the surface energy by increasing the coefficient of friction of a cured coating. This can be realized by addition of wax surface modifiers.

In particular, polypropylene waxes or wax emulsions:

  • Control slip without adversely affecting scratch and mar resistance
  • Have good migration performance which results in an increased wax density on the coating surface

When formulating with polypropylene wax emulsions, it is crucial to adapt the particle size of the emulsion to the coating layer, in order to maximize the wax effects on the coating surface.

Wax emulsions are used for their slip resistance property in Floor Polish.

» Check Out Various Wax Grades used as Slip Control Agents! 

Effect of Wax on Abrasion Resistance


Abrasion resistance is produced by a combination of basic characteristics such as elasticity, hardness, strength, toughness, and in some cases, thickness.

Abrasion Resistance in Coatings using Wax Emulsions

It has also been established that a trend similar to that of slip additives exists between the wax hardness and the capability of the wax to resist rubbing damage.

Hard wax resists abrasion better than soft wax

Thanks to its mar, scratch and rub resistance properties, wax emulsions are used in a wide range of applications such as:


» View Commercially Available Waxes for Scrub & Mar Resistance 

Wax Emulsions for Water Resistance


Water repellency or water resistance is another important property obtained or improved with waxes. As the name implies, this characteristic is the protection of a surface against water penetration (in liquid form).

Depending on formulation, the protection may be temporary or very durable and long-lasting.

Water Resistance in Coatings Using Wax Emulsions


Thanks to this property, wax emulsion is a key ingredient in a wide range of formulation for:


Effect of Wax on Touch & Feel


Although coatings are usually applied to provide optical effects (color, gloss or matting etc.) or to protect a substrate, some applications also require the surface to have tactile properties.

  • In modern car interiors, coatings with a soft-feeling are applied on plastic substrates (mainly PVC) such as instrument panels and door handles to convey a "leather-like touch", i.e. a feeling of smoothness and luxury.

  • With electronic devices (PCs, mobile phones, etc.) a "soft-feeling" effect created by specialized coatings is becoming increasingly more in demand.

By employing a coating that incorporates coarse wax particles, a rough and uneven surface is created at the microscopic level that is very similar to that observed with matting agents. Because tactile properties are largely dependent on the coating formulation, it is important that the wax particles protrude through the coating layer and this requires a particle size larger than the film thickness.

Thanks to this texturizing effect, wax emulsions are commonly used in Wood and Plastic Coatings.

Matt Effect Using Wax Emulsions


Providing wax dispersions have a particle size much higher than 1 µm, they will significantly reduce the gloss, by introducing micro-roughness on the coating surface. The so-created uneven surface will cause the light to be scattered.

The degree of the micro-roughness is determined by the number of particles present at the surface, which directly depends on wax properties such as:

  • Particle size and particle size distribution
  • Particle density
  • Amount of matting agent incorporated
Matt Effect using Wax Emulsion

Thanks to this matting property, wax emulsions are widely used in wide range of applications such as: Architectural, Wood coatings and Inks, OPV's & Primers.

» Select Waxes to Obtain Desired Matting Effect in your Application 

Effect of Wax on Black Heel Marks


Black heel marks occur in a floor coating when the heel or sole of a shoe leaves residue on the floor after a shoe scuffs or scrapes the coating surface. Grocery carts, platform trucks, hand trucks and fork lifts can all produce black marks.

By reducing the coefficient of friction of the coating, carefully selected waxes such as HDPE will have better mobility across a coating surface improving the heel mark resistance.

Thanks to its heel mark resistance property, wax emulsions are used in Floor Polish.



Applications of Wax Emulsions


Thanks to the various benefits discussed, wax emulsions are widely used in:


Wood Coatings


Surface modifiers are added to wood stains and sealers to significantly improve the weatherability of exterior applications such as decks, rails, stairways and siding to:

  • Protect these investments from costly damage
  • Maximizing their long term aesthetic value

With the proper use of a surface modifier, wood floor coatings (residential, commercial, and athletic facilities) can be protected from various degrees of traffic and wear during their lifetime, and can meet your VOC requirements.
Wood Coatings

Wax emulsion formulations have been shown to reduce scratching, scuffing, marring, general wear and loss of gloss.

Concrete Coatings


Unprotected concrete in residential or commercial applications is susceptible to damage from many sources including the weather, equipment and vehicles, as well as humans.

Concrete Coatings
  • Surface modifiers are used in coating and sealer formulations over finished concrete to improve water, scuff, abrasion, stain and graffiti resistance, and for hot-tire pickup resistance.

  • They can also be used as "concrete curing membranes" that are applied to freshly poured concrete to control and optimize its cure rate.

  • Thirdly, surface modifiers are added to "cure and seal" formulations, where the product is applied over wet concrete and acts as a curing membrane, as well as a long-lasting barrier coating.

Metal Coatings


Metal is used in the fabrication of many consumer and industrial products, from beverage cans to furniture to bridges. It is nearly always coated, firstly out of necessity to prevent the rapid effects of corrosion, but just as importantly to make the product more attractive. Surface modifiers enhance coating performance by a variety of functions, depending on the application.

Metal Coatings

Fixed structures such as bridges and industrial complexes require periodic coating maintenance to protect these valuable assets. Selective use of the appropriate wax surface modifier into the coating formula can provide:

  • Water repellency (supplemental barrier properties),
  • Mar and scratch protection, and
  • Other functions

Ink, OPV's & Primers


The OPV's are most commonly water-based or UV-curable, with solvent-borne also used. Various types of wax-based slip/rub additives are formulated into all types of OPV. Proper selection of wax surface modifiers also depends on the end use of the printed media.

Wax surface modifiers are the essential additive to an ink formulation, providing slip control, rub resistance, and scratch resistance, all critical to maintaining the integrity of a graphic design.

Besides inks and OPV's, primers are sometimes used to prepare the media for printing. Primers enhance the ink receptivity of surfaces, improving ink adhesion, rub resistance, and image quality.

Architectural Coatings


Interior and exterior architectural applications present their own unique coating related problems.

  • In exterior applications, wax emulsions re used to provide early, as well as long-lasting, water resistance
  • While, Interior coatings and sealers must be formulated for cleanability and anti-blocking. Wax emulsions effectively eliminate windows from sticking to trim - a common interior problem
Architectural Coatings


Plastic Coatings

Plastics are coated for three main reasons: aesthetics touch/feel and wear resistance. Surface modifiers are also used in the recipe for lacquer coatings applied to plastic surfaces that require scratch & mar resistance, and even resistance to common products such as suntan oils, coffee and food stains.

Paper, film & Foil Coatings

Flexible film packaging systems - often laminated with foil or paper - are increasingly popular and practical alternatives for packaging food and other goods. In the case of food, surface modifiers can again be incorporated into the film coating formulation to meet strict regulatory approvals for direct food contact.

Foil Coatings


Other special film performance attributes possible with wax surface modifiers include barriers to oxygen, moisture and grease, as well as heat sealability (preferably at low temperatures).

Floor Polish Coatings


Wax surface modifiers satisfy many of the performance demands of a floor polish. Proper selection and usage will control how the polish responds to buffing; minimize black heel marks; and provide slip control, i.e. the proper coefficient of friction to provide traction for foot traffic in wet or dry conditions.

Floor Coatings


By enhancing mar, scratch, and abrasion resistance, the surface modifier may also extend the durability of the polish, resulting in reduced maintenance demands.



About Polymer

jueves, 9 de noviembre de 2017

the new creature


HAZMAT Raw Materials' Substitutions in the Chemical Industry

Introduction
As chemical R&D teams and manufacturing facilities take steps to reduce the potential for chemical hazards to occur by replacing substances of very high concern, collaboration among regulators, chemists, and engineers is required.
WHITE PAPER
Development process from regulatory pressure.

R&D Solutions for Chemicals
The Inevitability of Chemical Substitution





"With substitution rising in necessity for many facilities,

these guidelines aim to direct the implementation so that it is conducted safely and effectively."
 





Executive Summary
In situations in which hazardous chemicals can be replaced by potentially less dangerous compounds, it’s only logical to avoid hazardous chemicals as much as is practical, and replace them with chemicals as different as possible from the originals. In fact, chemical substitution is an essential good laboratory practice (GLP) in labs around the world, and it is a cornerstone of basic occupational safety.




Substitution is an especially crucial measure when the chemicals involved are known to cause cancer, trigger allergic reactions, damage nerve tissue, or induce reproductive harm over the long or short term. While less dangerous chemicals

may still require the use of protective equipment and safety procedures,

the overall reduction in hazard is well worth any organizational and technical alterations necessary to achieve it.
 
In fact, increasingly stringent regulations make chemical substitution not only a rational practicality, but an inevitability. Even so, many facilities struggle to put these concepts into action, although administrators recognize how essential they are.




To reduce the challenges of chemical substitution, the chemicals should be assessed to decide whether substitution is a worthwhile process for that specific facility. Laboratories can then proceed

with the implementation by reviewing the hazard and risk inherent in substitution. Throughout these steps, it is important

to remember that collaboration between R&D teams with plant managers is necessary for the long-term aims of the chemical industry. With substitution rising in necessity for many facilities, these guidelines aim to direct the implementation so that it is conducted safely and effectively.
 
2
 
I. Substitution will become increasingly unavoidable as regulation increases
Laboratories and other chemical facilities control chemical-related risk in a

wide variety of ways. They may isolate dangerous chemicals, enclose them in contained sub-environments, provide systems for air filtration and removal of hazardous fumes, sterilize and safety- check equipment, mandate specific handling procedures, and require all workers to wear protective gear. In fact, many of these GLPs are now explicitly required by regulatory bodies around the world, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).




However, the only way to entirely remove the risk of a chemical hazard is to eliminate that chemical altogether. The most obvious reason to replace hazardous chemicals with less hazardous ones is

to remove or reduce the likelihood of
 
workers’ exposure to toxic or otherwise dangerous substances. Although the

risk of a hazard does not always result in actual harm, the presence of chemicals known to cause damage to human health is still a cause for serious concern in any laboratory environment, especially when safer alternatives are available.




Equally importantly, the likelihood is high that the pressure to substitute hazardous chemicals will continue to increase

as regulation tightens. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has already outlined a list of active chemicals which are candidates for substitution in order to ensure that substances hazardous

to health and/or the environment

are phased out and replaced by more suitable alternatives over time. Agencies around the world are likely to follow suit, further emphasizing the inevitability of substitution within the coming years.
 
II. R&D labs can respond by selecting chemical products with greater care
The mere act of substituting another chemical for a hazardous one does not necessarily guarantee that the hazard has been eliminated. Some alternative chemicals may
actually be more hazardous than the originals. Others may initially appear to offer a reduced risk of hazard while heightening risk in certain stages of the production process. Still, others may seem to offer no hazard at all, but they reduce the effectiveness of the final formulation.
For all of these reasons, it’s crucial to examine the material safety data sheet (SDS) and other documentation on any chemical under consideration. This allows for a comparison of the value of a chemical substitution in the following five key areas:
1. Effectiveness: Will the substitute chemical maintain the same quality in the end product after being subjected to all steps in the manufacturing process?
2. Compatibility: Will the substitute react as needed with other compounds in the process without interfering with any reaction?
3. Existing control measures: Can the substitute be controlled using existing safety measures, or will new measures need to be drawn up to control vapors or other by products?
4. Waste disposal: Can the substitute be disposed of through an existing disposal system without compromising regulatory compliance?
5. Hazard assessment: Will the substitute produce risky reactions or byproducts not produced by the original chemical?
 



3
 
III. Manufacturing plants can respond by proactively identifying and eliminating risks
Any decision about re-engineering a chemical manufacturing process may have to take place from the company or on a branch level. Such a decision involves intensive examination, risk analysis, process analysis, and consideration of possible substitutes.
To help guide this type of decision procedure, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) of the United Kingdom has outlined a seven-step process for preparing to implement chemical substitutions. The steps are as follows:
 
Identify hazards and assess risks: Take note of potentially hazardous chemicals currently stored and/or used on-site, and calculate the likelihood of a hazard resulting from continued usage with each of them.
Identify alternatives: Examine safety data sheets and other documentation on possible substitute chemicals to be used in product redesigns.
Consider the implications of each substitution: Plan out any alterations your facility will have to make in terms of workflow, equipment, parts, ventilation, disposal, and other areas in order to handle each substitution.
Compare alternatives: Weigh the risks and benefits involved in the usage of different states of each substitute chemical. Also, consider the possibility of redesigning a manufacturing process to eliminate unnecessary chemicals altogether.
Decide whether to substitute: Gather input from workers who will be handling the chemical in question and make a balanced decision.
Introduce the substitute: Once you’ve made your choice, immediately begin preparing the facility and workers as needed.
 
Assess the change: Check in on any alterations in your facility’s process, as well as on the safety of your staff and their confidence in working with the new substitute. Make further adjustments as necessary.
 



4
 
IV. R&D teams and plant managers can collaborate on substitutions in a variety of ways
The most obvious way to eliminate a hazardous chemical might be simply to remove it from a given production process. For example, an R&D team might replace certain organic solvents

with water-based paints or ester-based products. A similar tactic is to redesign a process to incorporate safer materials and techniques; for example, to switch from vapor degreasing to high-pressure hosing in a closed system.




However, the truth is that chemical- related risks can creep into facilities in a wide range of ways—all of which can be addressed effectively through different forms of substitution. Plant managers can combat hazards by using safer
 
methods for paint removal; for instance, blasting with steel sand in a contained environment. They might replace adhesive-based bonds in the plant’s architecture with mechanically locking parts or avoid electroplating with nickel

altogether. When choosing furniture, they might switch to untreated wood.




In all of these ways, R&D teams can work together with plant managers to eliminate hazardous chemicals from processes and facilities alike. As regulatory compliance makes chemical substitution

a higher priority than ever, this level of collaboration will become increasingly necessary to any chemical project’s long- term success.
 

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sábado, 30 de septiembre de 2017

Use Of Disinfentants

 




Proper Use of Disinfectants


By Michael Wilson



Due to the recent spread of a gastrointestinal virus in an industrial facility, the day porter maintaining

the facility during the course of the business day was asked to disinfect all of the building's cafeteria

tables after the mid-day lunch break. It was suspected the cafeteria was one place the virus was

spreading. To do this, he brushed off any dry soils on the table, sprayed the table with a disinfectant,

and then wiped the area clean with a microfiber cloth. This was repeated five days per week and, for

extra measure, sometimes the evening cleaning crew repeated the same procedure at the end of the

business day.


For many people--cleaning professionals and facility administrators alike--the cleaning

workers performed this procedure correctly. However, a closer examination reveals several

errors. For instance:


While brushing off the dry soils was correct, the cleaning worker should not have stopped there.




In most cases, disinfecting is a two-step process. The first step is to properly clean the area; the

second step is disinfecting. After brushing the dry soils from the tables, the worker should have

wiped each cafeteria table with an all-purpose cleaner or similar product. Then, on to step two.


Spraying the disinfectant on the tables simply applies it to them. In order for the disinfectant to




actually work and begin "killing" pathogens on the table, it must dwell on the table for about 10


minutes without drying. This means the worker should have sprayed a few tables with the




disinfectant and then returned to the first one to wipe it clean. If the disinfectant dries, it needs to

be reapplied.


How do we know this is the type of disinfectant that should be used to kill influenza-type viruses?




It is possible the disinfectant used to clean these tables was not, and if so might prove to be

ineffective. Every EPA-registered disinfectant in the United States has a "kill claim" on the

product's label or packaging materials identifying exactly what pathogens it is designed to

eliminate.


Microfiber tends to be more effective at cleaning and disinfecting than conventional terry cloths,

and using a clean microfiber cloth is correct--but it must stay clean. The cleaning worker should




have used a fresh quadrant of the cloth for each table and, after cleaning two to four tables,

replaced the cloth.


Having the evening cleaning staff clean and disinfect the tables once again is not necessary and




may prove costly in terms of labor, time, and chemicals and can have a negative impact on the

environment. If the procedure was performed correctly after the lunch break, an evening

cleaning/disinfecting is not necessary.


From this example, we have learned some very important things about the use of

disinfectants. One item at the top of the list is that unless the disinfectant's label says it both

cleans and disinfects, then cleaning and disinfecting are, as above, a two-step process.

Another item is that selecting the proper disinfectant is imperative. A disinfectant known to

eliminate the type of pathogens and microorganisms suspected to be on a surface must be

used to protect human health. (There are broad-spectrum disinfectants, which can be

viewed as all-purpose disinfectants and can be used when there is no specific pathogen or

it is unknown. However, for a known pathogen, it is best to select a disinfectant designed to

kill those microorganisms.)


Label Reading



We should delve a bit further into understanding disinfectants, and this starts with knowing

how to read a product's label. Of course, reading labels on any type of cleaning chemicals

is always recommended, but it is even more important when it comes to disinfectants.

As mentioned earlier, disinfectants have kill claims posted on their labels indicating they can

be used to kill, for example, the TB (tuberculosis) bacterium, HIV, MRSA (methicillinresistant


Staphylococcus aureus), or some other pathogen. However, the disinfectant that kills




HIV may not work against the TB bacterium.

While these three examples may not apply to disinfection procedures in an industrial facility,

this helps show the importance of selecting the disinfectant that is effective against a

particular pathogen. Other items typically listed on disinfectant's label that cleaning

professionals and administrators should be aware of include the following:


An EPA registration number. Every "approved" disinfectant used in the United States is assigned




a number by EPA. This number indicates the product has been reviewed and proven effective

with minimal risk to users when used per instructions.


Active ingredients. This is a list of all of the ingredients in the product responsible for killing




pathogens.


Inert ingredients. While these ingredients do not play an active role in killing pathogens, they




serve other purposes, such as ensuring that active ingredients perform effectively.


Precautionary statements. Precautionary statements provide information on a product's potential




hazards, as well as how to prevent these hazards from occurring. This information can include

proper dilution, disposal, first aid, and storage instructions.


Efficacy. This refers to the how effective the disinfectant is. "Limited efficacy" disinfectants are




typically used for household cleaning, whereas the most powerful disinfectants, "hospital-grade"

disinfectants, are used wherever health risks are most serious. (Limited efficacy disinfectants are

typically used against a specific group of pathogens.)


Selecting Sanitizers and Disinfectants



So far we have not discussed sanitizers at all. But in many situations, a sanitizer will suffice

in keeping an industrial facility healthy. While a disinfectant is designed to eliminate or


inactivate all disease-causing germs on a surface (when used properly), a sanitizer is

designed to reduce them, eliminating 99.9 percent of pathogens when compared to an




untreated surface.

In the example above about the industrial facility influenza outbreak, a sanitizer likely would

suffice as long as it was used properly. (Just as disinfectants must be used properly, so

must sanitizers. In most cases, the surface should be cleaned first using an all-purpose

cleaner and then the sanitizer can be applied. After recommended dwell time, the surface

should be wiped with a clean cloth.) However, if the outbreak continued or worsened,

cleaning workers/administrators would need to select a disinfectant designed specifically to

eliminate gastrointestinal-type pathogens.

This leads us to our next issue: how to select disinfectants and sanitizers. There are dozens

of professional-grade disinfectants and sanitizers on the market made by scores of different

manufacturers. Selecting the right product for the right situation can prove daunting. In such

cases, working with an astute janitorial supplies distributor is crucial. However, even the

distributor may need guidance.

For help in selecting disinfectants, sanitizers, and most other types of chemicals, plus paper

goods and cleaning equipment for their clients, some distributors now turn to web-based

analytical tools. Some of these systems resemble a computer dashboard. Products

currently used in a facility are entered into the system, and the tool suggests other products

that may be more effective, less costly, or higher-performing. When it comes to selecting

disinfectants and sanitizers specifically, these tools can prove invaluable because they

provide "fact based" suggestions. They have ready access to the products' efficacy, kill

claims, and other information that helps purchasers make the proper selection right from the

start.




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Este contenido todavía no está preparado para las conexiones cifradas.

GREEN CHEMICALS

The Green Seal certification is granted by the organization with that name and has a great number of members contributing with the requirements to pass a raw material or a chemical product as "green". Generally for a material to be green, has to comply with a series of characteristics like: near neutral pH, low volatility, non combustible, non toxic to aquatic life, be biodegradable as measured by oxygen demand in accordance with the OECD definition.
Also the materials have to meet with toxicity and health requirements regarding inhalation, dermal and eye contact. There is also a specific list of materials that are prohibited or restricted from formulations, like ozone-depleting compounds and alkylphenol ethoxylates amongst others. Please go to http://www.greenseal.com/ for complete information on their requirements.
For information on current issues regarding green chemicals, see the blog from the Journalist Doris De Guzman, in the ICIS at: http://www.icis.com/blogs/green-chemicals/.
Certification is an important — and confusing — aspect of green cleaning. Third-party certification is available for products that meet standards set by Green Seal, EcoLogo, Energy Star, the Carpet & Rug Institute and others.
Manufacturers can also hire independent labs to determine whether a product is environmentally preferable and then place the manufacturer’s own eco-logo on the product; this is called self-certification. Finally, some manufacturers label a product with words like “sustainable,” “green,” or “earth friendly” without any third-party verification.
“The fact that there is not a single authoritative standard to go by adds to the confusion,” says Steven L. Mack M.Ed., director of buildings and grounds service for Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.
In www.happi.com of June 2008 edition, there is a report of Natural formulating markets that also emphasises the fact that registration of "green formulas" is very confused at present, due to lack of direction and unification of criteria and that some governmental instittion (in my opinion the EPA) should take part in this very important issue.